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Nursing Diagnosis For Diabetes Mellitus

2023-02-08 12:54:21 Health and Fitness


If we look around us, we will notice that the number of people with diabetes is increasing daily. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), in 2021, about 537 million people were living with diabetes. By 2030 this number is expected to rise to 783 million. There could be two different types of diabetes mainly, diagnosed as type 1 and type 2 diabetes. When we hear the word diabetes, we don't usually think about the type, but it's important to know the difference between them.

The responsibility of insulin in our body is to control blood sugar levels, and in type 1 diabetes, the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes is when the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin, or the body can't use it effectively.

In this article, we will talk about type 2 diabetes vs type 1, its differences, symptoms, prevention and nursing diagnosis for diabetes mellitus.

What is type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 (T1) diabetes is an autoimmune disease that attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. It used to be called juvenile diabetes because it is often diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults. People with T1 diabetes need insulin therapy for life. Till date, there is hardly any way is known to the mankind to prevent type 1 diabetes. This diabetes triggers an immune response that destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The pancreas can no longer make insulin, and blood glucose levels rise.

What is type 2 diabetes?

It is the most common type of diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 90-95% of people with diabetes have type 2 (T2). It usually affects people over 45, but lately, it has been seen in younger people and even children. Poor lifestyle choices and diet can cause this type of diabetes. The body does not produce a sufficient amount of insulin, or the cells of our body fail to use insulin in the proper manner. When this happens, sugar (glucose) builds up in the blood instead of being used for energy.

Type 2 diabetes vs type 1: What is the difference?

When it comes to type 2 diabetes vs type 1, there are a few key differences. Below are some of the most important things to know about the two types of diabetes:

· Type 2 diabetes is typically diagnosed in adults, whereas type 1 diabetes is most often diagnosed in children or young adults.
· Type 2 diabetes is generally caused by a combination of lifestyle factors and genetics, whereas type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by an autoimmune reaction.
· Type 2 diabetes can often be managed with lifestyle changes and medication, while type 1 diabetes usually requires insulin therapy.
· In type 2 diabetes, the human body often fails to use insulin in the right way. On the other hand in type 1, the body fails to produce insulin.
· In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas usually produces some insulin, but not enough to properly control blood sugar levels. In type 1, the human pancreas fails to generate any insulin.
· While there is no cure for either type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes can often be controlled through diet and exercise, while type 1 diabetes requires insulin therapy for life.

Let's now learn about the different symptoms of both types of diabetes?

The main symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the same, but each type has its specifics.

The symptoms of T1 diabetes are:
· Extreme thirst
· Frequent urination
· Extreme fatigue or lack of energy
· Blurry vision
· Weight loss, even though you are eating more (appetite changes)
· Slow-healing cuts or sores
· Frequent infections, such as skin, gum, or bladder infections

The symptoms of T2 diabetes are:
· Frequent urination
· Excessive thirst
· Fatigue
· Blurry vision
· Slow-healing cuts and sores
· Weight loss (in type 2 diabetes, you may lose weight even though you are eating more)

Type 1 diabetes symptoms tend to develop quickly over weeks or even days. Type 2 diabetes symptoms, on the other hand, tend to develop slowly over several years. That's why type 2 diabetes is often called "the silent killer."

What are the risk factors for type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

Risk factors for type 1 diabetes include:

· Family history: People with parents or relatives with type 1 diabetes are at higher risk of developing it.
· Age: Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age but is most common in children and adolescents.
· Geography. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes increases as far from the equator as possible.
· Genetics: There are certain genes that could be more responsible of developing type 1 diabetes.

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include:

· Being overweight or obese.
· Having a family history of diabetes.
· Not being physically active.
· Having gestational diabetes.
· Prediabetes.


Type 2 diabetes vs type 1 diabetes is a common topic of discussion. While both types of diabetes have similar symptoms, there are some key differences between the two. Nursing diagnosis for diabetes mellitus can help manage and treat the disease. The most important thing to remember is that both types of diabetes require lifestyle changes and regular medical check-ups. Taking care of diabetes can help prevent severe complications down the road.

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