Among its many environmental challenges, China faces an enormous increase in energy consumption by buildings over the coming decades. Bricks and mortar already account for 25% of China’s total primary jaw crusher energy consumption, but are currently consuming energy at a very low level compared to developed countries. In fact, Chinese urban buildings consume three times less energy per unit of floor area, and 10 times less energy per person than those in the United States.
By examining the historical trajectory of building energy consumption in developed countries like the United States and Japan, we can find clues to what lies ahead for China. As per capita GDP rises, building energy usage intensity (EUI) – a measurement of the amount of energy used per unit of floor area – also increases.
China’s EUI is currently the same as Japan’s was in the 1960s and America’s in the 1950s. Since then, advances in heating and cooling technology have transformed how buildings are designed and operated. Along with the changes in lifestyles and consumption habits that have come with rising incomes, this transformation has led both the United States and Japan to double their building EUI. Unless this shift in design mode can be slowed or prevented, China can be expected to see a similar surge.
Most western architects and engineers are surprised that China’s buildings consume such a small amount of energy. In general, Chinese buildings have less insulation, leakier skin and windows and less advanced and efficient heating and cooling technology than their counterparts in developed countries. But they still manage to consume much less energy. Why? The explanation for this paradox lies in two interrelated factors: lifestyle and system design. Understanding how the combination of these factors drives increased energy consumption is critical to preventing a future boom in the amount of energy used by Chinese buildings. mobile impact crusher:http://www.hx-crusher.com/impact_crusher.html
In China, energy-consuming appliances – most importantly clothing dryers – are less widely used and Chinese occupants are more willing to accept larger ranges of temperature in their indoor environment. Utility bills also make up a greater proportion of disposable income, which encourages people to save money by saving energy.
But differences of habit and income don’t alone explain the large gap between the energy usage of Chinese and western buildings. The culture of low energy consumption is also influenced by design of heating and cooling systems, as well as architectural form. Professor Jiang Yi at Tsinghua University describes China’s standard heating and cooling system as “part-time part-space”, while the US most commonly uses a “full-time full-space” method.
Advances in Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system technology in developed countries have made possible the rise of fully enclosed glass structures, in which one very large system provides all the services for the building in nearly continuous operation. A standard Chinese building, on the other hand, uses operable windows and decentralised systems, where each room has its own air-conditioning unit or heater. In “part-time part-space” operation, building occupants actively control the temperature in individual rooms, while in “full-time full-space” operation, the system generally has automatic controls based on a set schedule.
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